These are growths that are similar to blood vessels, developing on the skin and soft tissues. They can either be highly malignant or benign.
A Haemangioma is a benign tumor that affects adult dogs. Breeds most at risk include Scottish, Kerry Blue, and Airedale Terriers; Boxers; and Gordon Setters. The common sites for these tumors are on the head, abdomen, and legs. They take the appearance of compressible, circular, single or multiple, reddish-black lumps. Though benign, they are likely to grow quite large and even develop ulcers. Due to the fact that they have to be confirmed whether they are cancerous, they should be removed.
Cutaneous (skin) angiosarcomas begin as benign tumors of the skin. Dogs with short, often white coats, exposed to high amounts of sun are the most likely to develop such tumors. The breeds susceptible to sun-caused angiosarcomas are white Boxers, Italian Greyhounds, Whippets, and Pit Bull Terriers. Vizslas, German Shepherds, Irish wolfhound, and Golden Retrievers are also likely to develop such tumors, but not as a reaction to sun exposure. In dogs, they most commonly grow on the hip, lower legs, thigh, and underside of the trunk. Averting of additional sun exposure may lessen the development of new tumors; on the other hand, new tumors can emerge over a number of years.
Angiosarcomas are extremely malignant and can differ to a great extent in outlook. The most common outlook is single or redder lumps in the skin or underlying soft tissues. They may also appear as a poorly defined bruise, though less frequently. These tumors spread, especially to the lungs and liver. They grow rapidly and often cause death of nearby normal tissue. A biopsy is essential to verify the diagnosis. For angiosarcomas below the skin surface, extensive surgical removal is the treatment of choice.
Hemangiopericytomas usually grow on the chest and lower legs of older, female dogs. Siberian Huskies, German Shepherds, Irish Setters, and mixed-breed dogs are most at risk. These sarcomas are characteristically firm, single tumors with uneven looping edges, especially in the fat beneath the skin. Though they may be malignant, they rarely spread to other sites. Total surgical removal is the treatment of choice, though recurrence is common within 12 months. In the event that the initial surgical removal of any sarcoma is inadequate, follow-up surgery and radiation treatment to totally remove the tumor is generally approved.
These benign tumors are also known by other names, such as and infundibular keratinizing acanthoma and keratoacanthoma. They are clusters of hard, layered bumps that extend upwards from the surface of the skin. They tend to resemble a horn, explaining why they are referred to as cornifying. During some situations, the epitheliomas may emerge exclusively as hard cysts, possibly arising from a hair follicle. Though such tumors can form anywhere on the body, their preferred areas are often on the back, legs, and tail. The dogs most at risk are middle-aged Norwegian Elkhounds, Bearded Collies, Belgian Sheepdogs, and Lhasa Apsos. However, Lhasa Apsos and Norwegian Elkhounds have a higher chance of developing extensive tumors. Diagnosis is made through searching for tumors on the animal, with treatment being voluntary, as long as there isn’t any ulceration, self-trauma, or secondary infection. Affected dogs find the tumors irritating and try to bite, scratch, or rub them off, resulting in skin trauma and consequent infection. The preferred treatment is surgical removal of the tumor. On the other hand, additional tumors are likely to grow. Animals with a generalized type of the disease may find relief in using oral retinoid medications.