These tumors are commonly located around the anal area of dogs, developing mainly in a specific gland located in the anal sac. It is also possible for them to form in similar glands next to the belly, the base of the skull, the anus, the tail, and in the skin of the back. The male of the species are much more susceptible than the females, with aged dogs being more prone. Pekingese, Siberian Huskies, Cocker Spaniels and Samoyeds are the most commonly affected breeds.
The tumors emerge as single or multiple lumps 0.2 to 4 inches in width. Big tumors usually form ulcers and haemorrhage. Additionally, big tumors can squeeze the anal canal thus making defecation hard.
Almost 95% of affected male dogs are cured by castration. Extremely large or ulcerated tumors that have become secondarily infected may be removed via surgical removal. Surgery is the preferred treatment for females, though this may need to be repetitive since recurrence is common in females. Radiation treatment can also be recommended as an option and might be approved on its own or combined with surgery. When tumors cannot be removed using regular surgical techniques, laser surgery and cryosurgery (freezing) may be necessary, though faecal incontinence is quite common subsequent to extensive surgery involving the sphincter.
Perianal gland adenocarcinomas are rare in dogs, with male dogs 10 times more likely to develop them than females. Alaskan Malamutes, Siberian Huskies, and Bulldogs tend to be the most high-risk breeds when it comes to developing this tumor. Biopsy assessment is the most appropriate technique of diagnosis. Because they frequently spread to lymph nodes along the lower back, it becomes necessary for the tumor itself and a lot of tissue surrounding it to be removed. Radiation treatment is regularly added after the surgery. Such tumors are normally unresponsive to oestrogen treatment or castration.